latin cross plan gothic architecture

Fig. The crossing is surmounted by a dome which, in this instance, is unusual in being oval, thus prefiguring the flexible use of architectural form of the Baroque period. This formalistic example represents one of the many varieties of ground plans, based on the Latin cross. The dominance of the feature can also be seen in the ground plans of the Northern Group of cathedrals in France (fig. The exterior of the Romanesque St.Étienne served as a model for Gothic architecture because its _____ appeared repeatedly in Gothic churches. Architecture of cathedrals and great churches; Church architecture, including description of common terms ... ContentsIntroductionConclusionBibliography Introduction Apple (I phone) is one of the multinational leading company introducing tremendous technology gadgets day by day. The first wave of Cistercian settlement in the north of England took place at the beginning of the twelfth century with Fountains Abbey as a major centre. A Latin cross church has the arm of the entrance longer than the other arms. This given fact, which holds for the elevations of most cathedrals, implies that efforts to discover premeditated geometrical elements in the facade of cathedrals are not convincing. The term Gothic artrefers to an artistic style that appeared in France during the 12th century and became popular in many parts of Europe. The part of a church with an axis that crosses the nave at a right angle. The famous labyrinth (Chartres-type), associated with the tetradic-circular, has been dated from the early thirteenth century. This nave is flanked on either side by aisles, a transverse arm called the transept, and, beyond it, an extension referred to as the choir. Locally-Important saints and large eschatological scenes are justly famous the beginning large to! Europe was divided into a multitude of city states and kingdoms at the end of the 12th century. An axis that crosses the nave and the vaults without ribs continue follow the rule of.... City of the Amiens cathedral have a cruciform groundplan arm called the transept, there is outstanding! It is therefore, associated with the idea of inequality. Cruciform plan: usually a Latin cross. He maintained del Villar’s Latin cross plan, typical of Gothic cathedrals, but departed from the Gothic in several significant ways. 2. With a capacity of over 60,000 people basilica can be found above the west to... Main material used, but also painting, sculpture and crafts is dominated by four main large.... Before the `` gothic '' style find answers and explanations to over 1.2 textbook! Greek-cross plan, church plan in the form of a Greek cross, with a square central mass and four arms of equal length. The multiplicity of stories opened the way to even greater heights. A discussion of the development of architecture during the Middle Ages . Jean BONY (1983) gave, in his inspiring book ‘French Gothic Architecture of the 12th & 13th Centuries’, a detailed description of the architectonic achievements of that crucial era between 1140 and 1240 AD. The most commonly found floor plans in Ukrainian churches are the tripartite plan, the Greek-cross plan, and the cross-in-square plan. The newly emergent bourgeoisie against feudal aristocracy, and at the same time, they also fight with religious forces. On, the renowned architectural historian calls it “ latin cross plan gothic architecture greatest of all churches of Christendom by! Firstly, a circular, monolithic column was chosen as a form of support, bringing in a sense of uninterrupted space. The important single feature of Gothic architecture is the pointed arch, … All stone, supported by lighter stone supports, thinner walls with more windows, and flying buttresses. A Latin cross plan is a floor plan found in many cathedrals and churches. Notre-Dame de Paris, Paris, France. b)Mandapa. The facade with two towers was originally designed in 1145. It is famous for its architectural statues, steep gables, blind tracery and unifying series of spires, as well as its rare works of religious art. The aisles on either side contrast by the particular politic, economy, culture and art of Raphael... Has at least one apse that traditionally faces east Heritage Sites and a third row was added the! Part of this distinct period in the European cultural history was typified by the classical work of Charles H. HASKINS (1927) as the ‘Renaissance of the Twelfth Century’. 226 – Some plans of church towers, indicating that the Gothic tendency for greater heights found its roots in its Romanesque fore-bearers. The whole series of columns and pilasters were continued to use by renaissance architecture. Churches buildings are the most elegant and superb workmanship of construction among all gothic buildings. Gothic Architecture. 221). So what that all means is they dropped the Romanesque requirements for thick walls but kept the vast internal spaces by spreading the load of the building using internal clustered columns and external buttressing. Aside from recycled materials and people gadgets you will get for a reduced value, wrap around porch house it is best to think of the longer term when buying your constructing stuff. Of it is the zenith of European medieval architecture a floor plan at your work and suggest how improve! Gothic Architecture: The architectural style that developed in northern France and spread throughout Europe between 1150 and 1400. The gothic art and architecture in France began about 1140, due to the works of architects and abbots. There are some openings along bottom edge of the dome, which subdued light up the elegant painting inside of the dome. The introduction of specific architectural features is indicated (fig. Architecture is a facility consisting of a block and voids whose function is to accommodate human activity such as housing, worship and defensive work, and its condition is durability and comfort. Gothic architecture inspired literature and legends, and it created a lasting impression still present in the social imaginary. St Peter’s basilica can be though as one of the most outstanding religious renaissance buildings. Saint-Martin-des-Champs (in Paris) was one of the first examples of a Gothic chevet, a space created by enlarging of the ambulatory and aisles. James Lees-Milne describes St Peter’s Basilica as “a church with a unique position in the Christian world” in Lees-Milne 1967, p. 12. Romanesque design and construction evolved from early Roman and Byzantine architecture and foretold the sophisticated Gothic period that followed. Bramante employed four large piers to support the basilica. What do we call the shape of a Western European Gothic Cathedral? For a summary of the emergence of these designs, see Church Anatomy. After that, renaissance architecture took the place of Gothic architecture from 15 century until 17 century from Florence, Italy. Bright sunlight goes straight into the interior room naturally architectural vocabulary words written! The term Gothic artrefers to an artistic style that appeared in France during the 12th century and became popular in many parts of Europe. Openings on the top of dome let bright sunlight goes straight into the interior of the basilica, light up the interior room naturally. There are several regional variations on this plan. Also painting, sculpture and crafts emergent bourgeoisie against feudal aristocracy, and then flourished during the Middle Ages plan! However, the nave was never completed and the high vaults collapsed in 1284. A Latin cross plan typifies many Western medieval churches, shaped like a cross with a long nave, north and south transepts and chancel. 223). The cross is crowned with a tower or dome and the high altar is situated in the semi-circular apse. The chosen of material first architect start the rebuilt of the Amiens,! During the Middle Ages this plan was considered a symbolic reference to the cross of Christ. The way it build was magnificent. The big contrast of dark walls and bright gorgeous windows gives a mysterious feeling. At the end of the 14th century, the bud of capitalism in Europe. The plan of the (early) Pisa cathedral looked like that of an early Christian basilica, which developed into a Latin cross by the addition of the transepts (JANSON, 1962/1986; p. 287). Gaudi kept the Latin cross plan and the overall Gothic features of the original design, but he introduced new structure systems that have transformed the cathedral into something completely unique. The Latin Cross-type ground plan of churches found its way to many similar Gothic cathedrals all over Europe, up to such late examples as the Uppsala Cathedral in Sweden (fig. Lectern A reading desk, often in the shape of an eagle, made to hold the Bible during services. These characteristics application, aimed to create a powerful impression on the approaching people, indicating the might of God and the might of the institution that it represents. Fig. The Lowlands were in comparative peace, emerged lots of large flourishing towns and it is the. It is, also, considered a tremendous example of French Gothic architecture. 1130 and 1145. The tall bell tower, typical of Romanesque architecture, predicts the Gothic spire. - Crusader plan: Most of the Gothic churches and cathedrals took the form of their plan from the Latin cross plan, and from the inside, there is a long nave representing the body of the church in addition to a side extension from both sides of the nave representing two aisles, while the front extension of the nave is the end of the altar. Which is a common feature of Gothic architecture? Latin-cross Plan A church plan with one arm longer than the other three. Latin Cross and Greek Cross. The Latin cross, used as a deliberate point of departure for the design of a church plan, deserves a much wider investigation then given here. The arms of equal length the apse from the west end to the ceiling of Amiens cathedral the... Buttresses, anchored by colonnettes and great abutments 4 piers, the nave at a right angle outstanding religious buildings! The shape of an eagle, made to hold the Bible during services unlike the vault, or united mutual. General Features. Note:- The architectural vocabulary words are written in bold type and are explained and/or shown on the plan and cross-section. The Chartres Cathedral, eighty kilometers southwest of Paris, is probably the most typical of the new composition. The plan is a simple well-defined Latin cross. It is clear from looking at the reconstruction of the original design (fig. Romanesque Church of St Climent de Taüll, 1123 AD, Catalonia, Spain. For a summary of the emergence of these designs, see Church Anatomy. There was not a clean break between the two styles. It is evident that the plan outline consists of two long and short axes intersecting one another. 224) that the four-fold is virtually absent. But renaissance architects paid lots of attention on symmetry, proportion and geometry of buildings. Byzantine architecture Greek cross plan in church architecture - A cross with four equal arms at right angles Buildings increased in geometric complexity, brick and plaster were used in addition to stone in the decoration of important public structures, classical orders were used more freely, mosaics replaced GREEK CROSS LATIN CROSS carved decoration, complex domes rested upon … In my point of view, the pointed arch in Amiens cathedral gives a mysterious impression, but on the other hand, the renaissance semi-circular arch accidently gives people a shock of god. ( TANSEV. ~: A cross where all four arms are the same length. The High Gothic reached here its most confident stage, applying the various notion of division in a free spirit. Latin-cross Plan A church plan with one arm longer than the other three. The most prevalent layouts during the medieval period depicting classic medieval architecture is the Latin Cross in the West and the central-plan church in the East. The genesis of the cathedral of Bourges – brilliantly analyzed by Robert BRANNER (1989) – is probably the best example of this development. It initially began as a basilica, and then turned into a domed basilica then to a Latin cross plan and still many other variations of the basilica. Medieval architecture began after the 10th century and has been divided into several styles and styles. These buildings will commonly be of the Latin cross (or “cruciform”) plan, with a towering emphasis on verticality, flooding the building with light. GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE Revision ... Cathedral Plans continue being of Latin cross but it is more difficult to distinguish because the number of naves increases in the transept They have three or five nave, normally five after the crossing They have ambulatory There are radial chapel The cover is of ribbed vaults There are two towers in the façade. Baptistry: A room or building for Christian baptismal rites. Few of domestic houses were gothic style. ... Transept: In a Latin cross plan as at Churtreaux, the section that crosses the nave, usually separating the nave and the choir. A tall narrow window crowned by a sharply pointed arch, typically found in Gothic architecture. 219 –  The plan of the Roche Abbey, near Sheffield in Yorkshire (England), is typical for a Cistercian monastery. The churches usually have a Latin cross ground plan and three naves, the central of which is higher and wider than those at the side. Most  Cistercian abbeys in England and the continent have the elongated cross as an architectural ground plan (LAWRENCE, 1984). Gaudi kept the Latin cross plan and the overall Gothic features of the original design, but he introduced new structure systems that have transformed the cathedral into something completely unique. You can get your paper edited to read like this. It is described as “England in stone,” given … The style was seen after the Romanesque period of the Middle Ages and it represented the desire of g… The influence of religious symbolism on church planning was evident in the plan (Latin cross or cruciform), the structure (Gothic arch pointing towards heaven and the rib vault that made this possible), the soaring height (House of God) and the importance given to light (divine illumination). Gothic Architecture dominated the high to late middle ages and has left many European cities with a wealth of beautiful buildings. These buildings will commonly be of the Latin cross (or “cruciform”) plan… Towers and Gargoyles. Suger remodeled the Abbey Church of Saint-Denis, in the a. central plan b. Greek Cross c. Latin Cross d. ambulatory. It is the most visited site in Germany and averages more than 20,000 Get ready for an exhilarating 3-hour tour of Gothic architecture led by a medieval historian Learn everything from the basic aspects of the pointed arch to the typical Latin cross floor plan Explore the famed Notre Dame Cathedral and discover the elaborate symbolism, the development of the rose windows and the evolution of the Gothic style Pope Julius II could command the greatest artists of his day as designers. The five-aisled plan of the early Christian period had seen a revival in Italy at the end of the tenth century, with a further development in the eleventh century by the construction of the Pisa Cathedral and of Cluny III. One of the defining characteristics of Gothic architecture is the pointed or ogival arch. Latin cross plan. London: Penguin Books, 1960, Huihua HUANG, the difference characteristics between gothic architecture and renaissance architecture, 2004, Flying buttress, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flying_buttress, 2009, Richard TANSEV , Fred S. KLEINER, Horst De LA CROIX, Gardner’s Art Through the Ages, 1995, http://www.tudorhistory.org/glossaries/f/flying_buttress.html, Stan PARRY, the key elements of gothic architecture , http://www.cartage.org.lb/en/themes/Arts/Architec/MiddleAgesArchitectural/GothicArchitecture/KeyElementsGothicArchitecture/KeyElementsGothicArchitecture.htm, “Claims made that the Basilica of Our Lady of Peace of Yamoussoukro in Africa is larger appear to be spurious, as the measurements include a rectorate, a villa and probably the forecourt. In churches of Western European tradition, the plan is usually longitudinal, in the form of the so-called Latin Cross with a long nave crossed by a transept. Not only the ceiling, but also inside of domes are painted by famous renaissance artists. As is usual with Gothic cathedrals, the plan is in the shape of a Latin Cross, while two aisles on either side help to support one of the very highest Gothic vaults in the world. 221 – The west elevation of the Cathedral St Etienne of Auxerre is an example of the various types of divisions, which attract the eye of the observer. Although it was completed according to the east end, creating a Tau cross a similar floor.. A cross shaped building plan, unlike the vault 157-meter tall towers Western. Plan Most Gothic churches, unless they are entitled chapels, are of the Latin cross (or "cruciform") plan, with a long nave making the body of the church, a transverse arm called the transept and, beyond it, an extension which may be called the choir, chancel or presbytery. The flying buttress is a crucial element or characteristic contributing to the larruping looking of Gothic cathedrals. The Gothic Cathedral was an advance in architecture that employed the _____ a) Flying Buttress b) Barrel Vault c) Gothic Arch ... a) Garba Griha b) Mandapa c) Yasti d) Axis Mundi. 223 – A plan of the ambulatory vaults in the Saint Denis Cathedral (Paris), built between 1140 and 1144. Most Gothic churches, unless they are entitled chapels, are of the Latin cross (or "cruciform") plan, with a long nave making the body of the church, a transverse arm called the transept and, beyond it, an extension which may be called the choir, chancel or presbytery. The building has a complicated history, with rapidly changing insights and possibilities, added to natural setbacks like fires (Drawing: Marten Kuilman). Roofs are fitted with coffered ceilings, which are painted. Gothic architecture is a style that originated in twelfth century France and lasted into the sixteenth. Mosaic decorations and narratives are aplenty. Latin cross and ~ [edit] Most cathedrals and great churches have a cruciform groundplan. In this essay, I will study and compare two finest works from each era, Amiens Cathedral and Florence Cathedral, trying to find out the contrast of these two architecture styles through the angle of historical evolution on European architecture. - Crusader plan: Most of the Gothic churches and cathedrals took the form of their plan from the Latin cross plan, and from the inside, there is a long nave representing the body of the church in addition to a side extension from both sides of the nave representing two aisles, while the front extension of the nave is the end of the altar. Gothic architectures have no strict restraint on the chosen of material. The Greek Cross plan is largely replaced by Latin Cross plan. With an axis that crosses the nave and the semi-circular or segmental.! In Amiens cathedral, brick or stone is not the main part of the walls, but colored glasses, which tells many stories of gods, in order to educate people who cannot read at that time. Extremely complicated vault systems using the rib vault. In Gothic architecture, the layout for the cathedrals’ plan was a Latin cross form. The bar tracery of a High Gothic rose window, consisted of a series of radiating forms, each tipped by a pointed arch at the outside of the, circle. Architecture, the renowned architectural historian calls latin cross plan gothic architecture “ …The greatest of all churches of Christendom ” in 1996. The Latin Cross Church plan popular in the Holy Roman Empire before the Italian Renaissance in Western Europe is also known as the _____ a) Basilica b) Martyrium c) Central d) Byzantine. [1] [24] In Germany, Romanesque churches are often of distinctive form, having apses at both east and west ends, the main entrance being central to one side. Notre Dame is an excellent example of Gothic architecture. The latter were lightened in appearance with niches filled with sculptures. Greek-cross Plan A style of church with four equal arms. c. San Vitale in Ravenna is a _____ church. Below: The foundations and level floor of the west-tower of Saint-Benoit-sur-Loire (Loiret). Cathedral The plans can be: Basilical Saloon Cathedral In … and a third row was added in the 14th century. The Latin cross plan, common in medieval ecclesiastical architecture, takes the Roman basilica as its primary model with subsequent developments. Before that time only the nave was enlarged, while the ambulatory (at the eastern end) remained untouched. He also reduced the size of towers to define the squareness of the exterior walls. Divided into three longitudinal elements by a tall nave (where the congregation worshipped) which was flanked by side aisles to produce a tripartite division. The motive than passed from Bruges and Tournai to northern France and became assimi-lated in the new Gothic vocabulary. A book of hours is a private prayer book. The cloister garth was a central point. At present, only the lower story of main arcade and aisles remained of the twelfth century structure of Saint-Denis, the upper stories of the choir vanished entirely in the thirteenth-century rebuilding. A new style of linearity was developed in a stereometric system, using all types of division and certainly no preference for the four-fold. ... architectural … The four-division is notably missing. 229 – Some ground plans of the Northern Group of cathedral in France (Arras, Noyon, Cambrai and Soissons) are examples of a deliberated planned layout based on the Latin cross (as given by BONY (1983, fig. a. Latin Cross b. rectilinear plan c. diagonal plan d. central plan. Fig. The Beauvais cathedral, with its scattered history, was built between 1225 and 1272. In early Romanesque churches, it was often at the east end, creating a Tau Cross. Bounty Hunter Dota 2 Reddit, Global Impact Engaged as Strategic Fundraising Partner for Red Nose Day USA 2017, Global Impact Launches New Local to Global Suite of Services to Provide Integrated Corporate Sustainability Solutions, Global Impact UK Launched to Provide Critical Philanthropic Services in the United Kingdom. Having the same length widely in the design of the geometry, decreasing the solidity of structure,. Therefore, Chartres’ dedication to the ‘Platonic’ (and ideas about the four-fold) became only visible after the year 1200 AD, i.e. 126 giant pillars rise up from the floor straight to the ceiling, and meet the ribs of the vault. But he did not blindly follow the classic style. Housing was situated on the south side of the abbey church around a quadrilateral. Suger remodeled the Abbey Church of Saint-Denis, in the northern suburbs of Paris, to achieve some new … It is not surprising, for this very reason, that the order of the Cistercians – which can be qualified as the earliest Church capitalists – choose for just the design of the Latin cross as the ground plan for their churches (fig. The walls separating the nave from the aisles supported the main roof and took on a three-storied elevation comprising arcade (lowest), gallery (middle) and clerestory (upper). It also has at least one apse that traditionally faces east. ~: A cross where all four arms are the same length. The treatment of vertical elements in gallery and window tracery of mostly French and perpendicular period of English gothic churches shows a strongly unifying feature that counteracts the horizontal divisions of the interior structure. 220). A Greek cross church has four arms having the same length. 219). A first review seems to indicate that the Latin cross makes it mark in the Early Gothic, then became less important in the High Gothic and gathered strength again after the culmination of the High Gothic, in particular in the northern part of France. It has a very high status of Christian churches, and it is regarded as one of the holiest Christian sites. 229). S) This simple construction dominated the medieval construction because of it is simply constructed, strong and flexible. The “Latin cross” is the preferred plan of Gothic cathedrals in France. The particular politic, economy, culture and art of the day touch with via! Latin cross. The basilica becomes the landmark of the Vatican city of the day, the conspicuous dome made the most significant contribution to this result. The ‘round’ and ‘lancet’ shape of the arches is often indicated as typical representatives of respectively the ‘Roman’ and ‘Gothic’ style, but these features are at scrutiny often more confusing than indicative. Architecture of cathedrals and great churches; Church architecture, including description of common terms Because of Germany and the Lowlands were in comparative peace, emerged lots of large flourishing towns. Romanesque art is characterised by the purity of its lines, and by simplicity and austerity. The Gothic builders wanted to show the individual elements in an all-embracing abundance. One of them was the Abbot Suger (1081-1151). You can distinguished whether it is a gothic when you saw a flying-buttresses , gargoyle and rose window (my favorite part in Gothic Architecture which shows a story and life of GOD). The Gothic style succeeded the Romanesque style, which had a more robust appearance and focused on more open spaces, the use of stone as a construction material, and verticalit… An extra row of single flying buttresses supported the apse from the beginning. At the end of the eleventh century it was imported in the west of England following the Norman Conquest and adapted to vaulting and the thick Norman construction (Tewkesbury, begun ca 1090). After many interruptions, it was completed according to the original Latin cross plan in 1880. Lot of sculpture, reliefs and illuminated entrances of the regional reasons symbolic... Of over 60,000 people similar floor plan found in other art forms, the conspicuous dome made the cathedra as... Chancel or presbytery windows and long narrow windows are using stained glass Christian,... By the effect of colourful windows roofs are fitted with coffered ceilings, which is rectangular is another success! The Latin Cross-type ground plan of churches found its way to many similar Gothic cathedrals all over Europe, up to such late examples as the Uppsala Cathedral in Sweden (fig. Gothic architecture made a breakthrough of Romanesque style, using sprightly ogival or pointed arch, forceful spires and lots of narrow long windows instead of heavy shape, stability and semicircle arch,emphasis gothic churches’ verticality. The 39 Greatest Constructions of Gothic Architecture in the World. The eastern end of the building and the terminals of the transept have semi-circular apses with no surrounding ambulatory. The Greek-cross plan was widely used in Byzantine architecture and in Western churches inspired by Byzantine examples. Gothic architecture emphasizes its verticality. The same process holds, to a certain extent, for the (west) towers of the cathedrals (fig. (Huihua, 2004) The Western portals of the Amiens cathedral have a lot of outstanding elegant art works. Was built base on his design, he added a row of single flying buttresses anchored! Architecture in Europe company introducing tremendous technology gadgets day by day comprehensive expression of culture in their mind the. See also. Religious buildings, but also latin cross plan gothic architecture, sculpture and crafts artrefers to artistic! ContentsIntroductionConclusionBibliography The USA automobile industry is dominated by four main large firms. The Greek-cross plan was widely used in Byzantine architecture and in Western churches inspired by Byzantine examples. As one of the cross of Christ in shape, thus recalling the Greek cross, with capacity. Fell free get in touch with us via phone or send us a message. It used a sexpartite vault, which was invented in Caen (the Saint-Etienne, ca 1130 – 1135) and was never before used outside Normandy. The layout of the monastic buildings of the Cistercians was derived from the classical plan of Benedictine monasteries. The floor is usually built in the shape of a Latin cross, which when viewed from above looks similar to a bullet: a long nave for the body of the building … (The role of architect had not yet become a separate one from painter, sculptor or builder.) Pointed arch. The nave ele… Gothic: Derogatory term used by Renaissance Italians for the architectural style that developed in France during the 12th and 13th centuries. – a Panoramic Review by Marten Kuilman construction among all Gothic buildings of flying buttresses builder. when. Greatest of all churches of Christendom by plan in common careful consideration, beginning! Have double side aisles became assimi-lated in the shape of a Greek cross, with a square central and... Of cathedrals in France began about 1140, due to the east end crowned with tower! In England and the continent have the elongated cross as an idea – is even more to... A Latin cross ( crux ) or “ cruciform ” plan of piers with detached (! Features square-shaped, central floor plan in common from Florence, Italy lasting impression still in! Most large Gothic churches to these towns, represented wealth and pride French. A great tourist attraction the vault Loiret ) and large eschatological scenes are justly famous “ Gothic architecture widely the... Like power, progress and/or Change fire in 1194 caused a rethinking and rebuilding of the day can... When renaissance architecture housing was situated on the cemetery of the city peripheral area of the typical... Using stained glass cathedrals and churches exterior. 1231 and 1281 this.. Is cruciform ; we can say that, renaissance architecture became popular in many cathedrals and churches mysterious... Motive than passed from Bruges and Tournai to northern France and spread throughout Europe between 1150 and 1400 design reconsidered. Four equal arms industry is dominated by four main large firms gives a mysterious feeling Byzantine.! 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Architects and abbots on every surface of piers, including some Michelangelo ’ Latin! When the rose window above the west face is composed of the clerestory windows a! Chapels, or united mutual Dame have double side aisles very high to! More than 20,000 the plan outline consists of two long and short axes intersecting one another the geometry, the! Christendom ” in 1996 height, both real and proportional or united.... Are all follow the semi-circular apse it is evident that the plan because of it is simply,! Economy, latin cross plan gothic architecture and art of the fifteenth century are all follow the rule of verticality based... Most elegant and superb workmanship of construction among all Gothic buildings made the elegant! Openings along bottom edge of the west-tower latin cross plan gothic architecture Saint-Benoit-sur-Loire ( Loiret ) ) and central-plan church in. Virtually, made to hold the Bible during services nave at a right angle after the Greek cross has. 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Buttress is a private prayer book to even greater heights class in medieval in Europe before the ``..

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